Abstract
INSIGHTS INTO ACTINOBACTERIA FOR ITS POTENTIAL APPLICATION FOR METAL REMOVAL CONSIDERING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Reshma Ayswaria* and Achuth Jayakrishnan

ABSTRACT

The momentous rise in heavy metal pollution of soil since the advent of the industrial revolution increased human activities on energy reservoirs and unsafe agricultural practices are of serious concern. This, in particular, the single pollution or the combined pollution caused by copper, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, etc. has an impact on the environmental quality, human health, and crop production. The toxic metal accumulation in agricultural soils could lead to their entry into the food chain and thereby cause a major threat to food security. The heavy metal aggregation could lead to drastic repercussions such as DNA damage, inhibition of respiration and photosynthesis, and rapid reactive oxygen species generation. Conventional and physical strategies are exorbitant and not effective in places with low metal toxicity. Bioremediation of these metals in leading to a reduced or nontoxic state is an attractive approach for removing pollution. This approach is considered a low-cost and highly effective technique, with fewer side effects as compared to chemical and physical methods. The process involves the application of inherent biological mechanisms of microorganisms and plants to eradicate hazardous contaminants. The current review discusses the different microbes and their mechanism involved in the bioremediation process. The microorganism has specific mechanisms evolved to prevail over the heavy metal toxicity, such as biotransformation, biosorption, and homeostasis.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Biosorption, Bioaccumulation, Heavy metals, Toxicity.


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