Abstract
GC-MS ANALYSIS AND OXIDATIVE STRESS OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS LEAVES IN WISTAR RAT FED WITH HIGH LIPID DIET

Osaro Iyekowa*, Sylvanus O. Innih and Idowu D. Adegbenga and Joy O. Oyebisi

ABSTRACT

Background: In recent years, emphasis has been placed on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment and management of diseases. One of such plants used in ethno medicine in Southern Nigeria is Abrus precatorius and the study was carried out to determine the effects of isolated oil of methanol extract of Abrus precatorius on the oxidative indices of wistar rat fed with high lipid diet. Method: Five hundred and fifty grammes (550g) of Abrus precatorious leaves were extracted with methanol and concentrated in a rotary evaporator at 500C. Phytochemical analysis was performed according to standard methods while oil isolation of methanol extract were done by vacuum liquid chromatography and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty adult wistar rats were randomized into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F) and treated under certain conditions of feed, distilled water, methanol plant extract and atrovastacine as standard drug. Signs of general toxicity were monitored in live animals and after sacrifice. Oxidative stress markers were assessed from the liver and sera respectively. Data were represented as mean ± S.E.M (n=5). Significance of difference was tested by ANOVA at P<0.05. Result: The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, eugenols, terpenoids, saponins and phenolics were detected. Major component detected from the isolated light brown oil of A. precatorius was octadecanoic acid (stearic acid) (Retention time (Rt):26.985; 30.70%), a saturated fatty acid and methyl stearate (Rt: 26.314; 8.79%), an ester was among minor components. All groups that received lipid diets indicated high levels of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), low levels of super oxide dismutase (SOD). However experimental group D treated with low dose of extract indicated a significant reduction in the MDA levels and an increase in SOD. Conclusion: These observations suggest that methanol extract of A. precatorius has ameliorative effects in reducing oxidative stress.

Keywords: GC-MS, Abrus precatorius, Phytochemicals, oxidative stress, isolated oil.


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