Abstract
VITAMIN D AND ITS DEFICIENCY – AN UPDATE

R. Dhananjayan*

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin present as ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol, synthesized in skin by sunlight. The requirement of Vitamin D in humans is achieved either by ingesting vitamin D or being exposed to sun light for enough time to produce adequate amounts. It controls calcium absorption in small intestine and works with parathyroid hormone to mediate skeletal mineralization and maintain calcium homeostasis in the blood stream. It may be a determinant of mortality because of its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects. It is synthesized from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin. The hydroxylation in liver forms 25(OH)D, the inactive form of vitamin D and then in the kidneys it is further hydroxylated to 1,25(OH)D, the active form, also known as Calcitriol. This paper is formed on the basis of reviewing and analyzing various research work on Vitamin D as the greater awareness is required among researchers, clinicians and patients due to high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the recent days.

Keywords: Ercocalciferol, Cholecalciferol, Calcitriol, Vitamin D, Osteoporosis, Rickets.


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