Thulasingam Muthukumaran*, Sam Johnson Udaya, Chander J, Gomathi J, Kavitha C, Clement Atlee W and Sabbathyan Balla


The 2020 global outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) is a serious threat to international health, and thus, there is an urgent need for discovery of novel therapies or use of repurposed drugs that can make a significant impact on slowing the spread of the virus. Progression of COVID-19 is thought to occur as a result of a complex interplay between multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, all of which may orchestrate SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to organ-specific tissue damage. In this respect, dissecting currently available knowledge of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis is crucially important, not only to improve our understanding of its pathophysiology but also to fuel the rationale of both novel and repurposed treatment modalities. Various immune-mediated pathways during SARS-CoV-2 infection are relevant in this context, which relate to innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and autoimmunity. Pathological findings in tissue specimens of patients with COVID-19 provide valuable information with regard to our understanding of pathophysiology as well as the development of evidence-based treatment regimens. This review provides an updated overview of the main pathological changes observed in COVID-19 within the most commonly affected organ systems, with special emphasis on immunopathology. Current management strategies for COVID-19 include supportive care and the use of repurposed or symptomatic drugs, such as dexamethasone, remdesivir, and anticoagulants. Ultimately, prevention is the key to combat COVID-19, and this requires appropriate measures to attenuate its spread and the development, implementation of effective vaccines.

Keywords: SARS CoV-2, Pathophysiology, Causing agents, Treatment. Prevention.

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