Renu Jaiswal, Ishwerpreet Kaur Jawanda, Thomson Soni, Harkeerat Kaur, Divya and Vijay Prabha*


Utter devoid of spermatozoa in the ejaculate is known as azoospermia. It is one of the most substantial and serious consequences of male infertility. Azoospermia precise pathogenesis is often not understood. About 1% of males in the overall population and 10%-15% of infertile men have azoospermia. This may be attributed to pre-testicular, testicular, and post-testicular causes. It is also categorized as obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Obstructive azoospermia is a potent source of male infertility and may be caused by inflammation, genetic malformations, or iatrogenic harm. Across many instances of obstructive azoospermia, microsurgical vasal restoration is an effective therapy; nonetheless, some couples may need sperm extraction and in vitro fertilisation. On the other hand, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is the most serious consequence of male infertility and is characterised by the apparent lack of sperm in the discharge owing to malfunction of spermatogenesis. NOA is caused by either intrinsic testicular dysfunction or insufficient gonadotropin synthesis. There is a somewhat high occurrence of chromosomal or genetic anomalies compared to the general population, thus they should be examined. NOA owing to insufficient gonadotropin production is a disorder that may be treated medically to enhance fertility. This significant study gives an up-to-date account of the most current evidence regarding azoospermia's aetiology.

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