S. P. Vaishnav*, V. A. Bairagi


Exosomes are nano-sized vesicle secreted by nearly all cell and have received massive attention recently. In addition their roles in pathophysiological processes and diagnostic evaluation, recently. Several studies have applied in exosomes to design novel therapeutic application. Exosomes with an average diameter of ~100 nanometers and subset of EVs. The biogenesis of exosomes involves their originals in endosomes and subsequent interaction with other intracellular vesicles and organelles generate the final content of the exosomes. Their diverse constituent includes nucleic acids, protein, lipids, amino acids, other metabolites that can reflect their cell of origin. In various diseases exosomes offers s window in to altered cellular or tissue states and the detection in biological fluids potentially offers a multicomponent diagnostic readout the efficient exchange of cellular components through exosomes can inform their applied use in designing exosome based therapeutics. The clinical trials involving exosomes and its advantages hazards with difficulties involved during storage and large scale production with its application in nanotechnology .In this review, we tried to summarize the exosomal structure, composition, formation, and isolation process. We also discussed their active role in pathogenesis. Exosomes may have evolved early in the evolution of multicellular organisms and also seem to be important for tissue developmental processes.

Keywords: Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, biomarkers, immune therapy, nanomedicine, diagnosis, surface stability, target drug delivery.

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