Abstract
ANIMAL RESEARCH ETHICS: AN OVERVIEW

Pooja Agrawal, Virendra Kushwaha*, Vipul Shukla and Anuj Kumar

ABSTRACT

The use of laboratory animals in biomedical research is a topic of debate. Animals are utilized in study and research for centuries. We give an integrative approach explaining why biomedical research cannot neglect laboratory animal testing by outlining scientific, historical, ethical, and philosophical factors. Irrespective of the ethical attitude one takes, there is widespread agreement that animals have moral value and that their welfare must be regarded at the very least. It is not possible to replace in vivo animal experimentation because animal physiology and pathology are the same as humans, and this environment is not possible in vitro labs. National/international regulatory authorities have implemented a policy over 3 Rs (replacement, reduction, and refining) so that cruelty to animals could be prevented and animals should be used if and only if there are no alternatives available.

Keywords: Animals ethics, 3Rs, Ethical issues, Biomedical Research.


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