Abstract
INVESTIGATING A SHEEP ANTHRAX OUTBREAK IN MUDDABALLI VILLAGE, KARNATAKA, INDIA: AN INTEGRATED STUDY OF DEMOGRAPHIC, ECOLOGICAL, SOCIO-ECONOMIC, AND RISK FACTORS

#Suresh K. P., Sagar N., Jayashree A., Naveesh Y. B.1, Hemadri D., S. S. Patil, Ramesh Doddamani and Sushma R.

ABSTRACT

Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a persistent global threat to both public health and livestock industries. This study investigates a outbreak of sheep anthrax in Muddaballi Village, Karnataka, India. The demographic and ecological characteristics of this region are pivotal factors influencing disease emergence, with varying outbreak years observed among sheep farmers. Socio-economic factors and Risk and Emergency Management Behaviour (REMB) were found to be critical determinants of anthrax incidence, emphasizing the multifaceted nature of the disease's spread. Sheep migration and proximity to water bodies, notably the Tungabhadra reservoir, facilitated spore transfer and contributed to the outbreak in this village. The study highlights the urgency of proactive measures, including comprehensive disease surveillance, vaccine accessibility, training initiatives for local veterinarians and farmers, and the integration of AI tools for early detection and rapid response.

Keywords: Anthrax outbreak, Sheep anthrax, Disease surveillance, Livestock trading, Disease prevention.


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